Archive from November, 2012
Nov 8, 2012 - Uncategorized    1 Comment

Sugar Crystal Experiment

Chemistry is one of my favorite subjects. Most of it we can know by doing experiments. One of it I consider to be the best, it is about crystallization.

After my half yearly exams were over, I asked my mother to do a experiment for me. So my mother said ok, so we started doing the experiment and after a week we saw beautiful sugar crystals.

After seeing it an idea flashed into my mind that if we keep it for some mare days, will it grow? So I kept it for some more days and when I saw it some days later so, it really grew.

If you also want to make it and have fun like me, so proceed with the given  instructions.

You Need

  • 1 cup water
  • 3 cups table sugar
  • Glass jar
  • pencil or butter knife
  • string
  • pan or bowl for boiling water and making solution
  • spoon or stirring rod
Time Required: a few days to a week
  • Gather your materials.
  • Tie the string to a pencil or butter knifeS. If you have made a seed crystal, tie it to the bottom of the string. Set the pencil or knife across the top of the glass jar and make sure that the string will hang into the jar without touching its sides or bottom.
  • Boil the water. If you boil your water in the microwave,
    e very careful removing it to avoid getting splashed!
  • Stir in the sugar, a teaspoonful at a time. Keep adding sugar until it starts to accumulate at the bottom of the container and won’t dissolve even with more stirring. This means your sugar solution is saturated. If you don’t use a saturated solution, then your crystals won’t grow quickly. On the other hand, if you add too much sugar, new crystals will grow on the undissolved sugar and not on your string.
  • If you want colored crystals, stir in a few drops of food coloring.
  • Pour your solution into the clear glass jar. If you have undissolved sugar at the bottom of your container, avoid getting it in the jar.
  • Place the pencil over the jar and allow the string to dangle into the liquid.
  • Set the jar somewhere where it can remain undisturbed. If you like,you can set a coffee filter or paper towel over the jar to prevent dust from falling into the jar.
  • Check on your crystals after a day. You should be able to see the beginnings of crystal growth on the string or crystal.
  • Let the crystals grow until they have reached the desired size or have stopped growing. At this point, you can pull out the string and allow the crystal to dry. You can eat them or keep them.

Tips:

  1. Crystals will form on a cotton or wool string or yarn, but not on a nylon line. If you use a nylon line, tie a seed crystal to it to stimulate crystal growth.
  2. If you are making the crystals to eat, please don’t use a fishing weight to hold your string down. The lead from the weight will end up in the water — it’s toxic. Paper clips are a better choice, but still not great.

This the only process how candy is made! So enjoy and have fun!

Nov 7, 2012 - Uncategorized    2 Comments

The Mauryan Empire

I like history very much. history is one of my favorite subjects. I have written a post on Jainism before. Now I am going to write my views about THE MAURYAN EMPIRE.

THE MAURYAN EMPIRE

The Mauyan Dynasty existed from about 321 BCE to 185 BCE. Its capital was  Pataliputra (patna). It had been ruled by efficient rulers like Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara and Ashoka The Great. With an area of 5,000,000 km2, it was one of the world’s largest empires in its time, and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent.

At its greatest extent, the empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the Himalayas and to the east stretching into what is now Assam.

To the west, it conquered beyond modern Pakistan annexing Baluchistan south eastern parts of Iran and much of what is now Afganistan including the modern Herat and Kandhar provinces.

 

The Empire was expanded into India’s central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara but it excluded a small portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga (Orrisa), until it was conquered by Ashoka. Its decline began 60 years after Ashoka’s rule ended.

 

Now I will tell you in detail about these three efficient rulers.

Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta is known as the founder of the Mauryan Dynasty. He defeated the last Nanda king Dhana Nanda. He expanded his territories. But soon he has to fight with Seleucus Nicator, the chief general of Alaxander. After this, Chandragupta married the daughter of Seleucus Nicator. Chandragupta made a gift of 500 elephants to him. In return, Seleucus Nicator let Chandragupta rule a little across the territories across the river Indus.

Seleucus Nicator also sent his ambassador Magasthenes to the court of Chandragupta who lived many years in order to know about the mauryan culture.

Bindusara

I had listen about Ashoka but till now I do not know about Bindusara. So I have searched through  internet and have found this.

He was the suceeder of Chandragupta Maurya. He even more expanded the territories of the empire. According to a legend mentioned in the Jain texts, Chandragupta’s guru and advisor Chanakya used to feed the emperor with small doses of poison to build his immunity against possible poisoning attempts by the enemies.

One day, Chandragupta not knowing about poison, shared his food with his pregnant wife queen Durdhara who was 7 days away from delivery. The queen not immune to the poison collapsed and died within few minutes. Chanakya entered the room the very time she collapsed, and in order to save the child in the womb, he immediately cut open the dead queen’s belly and took the baby out, by that time a drop of poison had already reached the baby and touched its head due to which child got a permanent blueish spot (a bindu) on his forehead. Thus, the newborn was named “Bindusara”.

He is also known as cruel ruler in history and thus does not mark important rule in history.

Ashoka The Great

I live in banaras where Lord Buddha gave his first teachings. I have also seen a museum which is situated in Sarnath. There I have seen the Capital Of Ashoka which is our National Emblem. So I have searched through  internet and have found this.

Chandragupta’s grandson i.e., Bindusara’s son was Ashokavardhan Maurya who was also known as Ashoka or Ashoka The Great (ruled 273- 232 BCE).

Ashoka’s army succeeded in overwhelming Kalinga forces of royal soldiers and civilian units, an estimated 100,000 soldiers and civilians were killed in the furious warfare, including over 10,000 of Ashoka’s own men. Hundreds of thousands of people were adversely affected by the destruction and fallout of war. When he personally witnessed the devastation, Ashoka began feeling remorse. Although the annexation of Kalinga was completed, Ashoka embraced the teachings of Buddha.

Ashoka implemented principles of ahimsa by banning hunting and violent sports activity and ending indentured and forced labor (many thousands of people in war-ravaged Kalinga had been forced into hard labor and servitude). While he maintained a large and powerful army, to keep the peace and maintain authority, Ashoka expanded friendly relations with states across Asia and Europe, and he sponsored Buddhist missions.

He undertook a massive public works building campaign across the country. Over 40 years of peace, harmony and prosperity made Ashoka one of the most successful and famous monarchs in Indian history. He remains an idealized figure of inspiration in modern India.